Sindh which is regarded as the oldest civilization of the world, with the first known village settlement date as far back as 7000 BC. Sindh has been called with various names over the centuries e.g. Sauvira, Mehran, Sindhudesh, and Sindhu mainly based on the original name of River Indus. This culture blossomed over several millennia and gave rise to Indus Valley civilization around 3000 BC. They were very competent people with other civilizations of that times such as with Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamia in both size and scope numbering nearly half a million inhabitants. It was a much civilized, tolerant and advanced Society In Well Planned City Moen jo Daro there exist wide streets, paved and well designed drainage system. It is known that Indus valley civilization was tradding with ancient Egypt and ancient Mesopotamia through establishing shipping lanes. In ancient Egypt, the word for cotton was Sindh suggesting that the bulk of that civilization’s cotton was imported from Indus valley Civilization. Several kings have conquered and ruled over the Sindh such as Persians Achaemenid Empire in 6th century BC. In late 300s BC, Sindh was conquered by mixed army led by Macedonian Greeks under the Alexander the Great and they ruled for few decades. After the death of the Alexander the Great, there was a brief period of Seleucid rule, before Sindh was traded to the Mauryan Empire led by Charagupta in 305 BC. During the rule of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, the Budhist religion spread to Sindh. Muryan rule ended in 185 BC with the overthrow of the last king of the Sunga Dynasty. After that Greek rule returned when Dmetrius I of Bactria led Greco-Bactrian invisioned of the India and annexed most of the north western lands, including Sindh. This ups and downs of history continued until the 711 CE when Mohammad bin Qasim conquered the Sindh and as Arabs enters here and Islam widespread in subcontinent Sindh is also regarded as Babul Islam (Gateway of Islam). Muslims ruled the India for several hundred years until the British Armies conquered the India and 1947 they geot rid of from Britain and subcontinent was divided into two countries, Pakistan and India and Sindh part of Pakistan.
Today’s Sindh is largely urbanized, with Karachi, Hyderabad, and Sukkur being developed as large cosmopolitan cities. The economy, which was based on agriculture and livestock three decades ago, is now based on industrial production and value addition on agriculture products. Sindh is the most urbanized, and educated province of Pakistan which serves as the economic hub of the nation, but economic disparity, growing difference in rich and poor and strong feudal system within the province, as well as, stark differences in development pattern, is among the most distorted factors in social fabrics of the province.